Rule of Law and SSR/G

“In societies emerging from war, citizens often fear local law enforcement, who may have been associated with the conflict. Deploying to these communities, International Police must do more than help rebuild damaged infrastructure — they must repair broken faith in the authorities.

Jan Eliasson
UN Deputy Secretary-General

ABC of International Law (FDFA, Switzerland)

ABCs of International Humanitarian Law (FDFA, Switzerland)

Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials (UNGA, 1979)

Compendium of UN standards and norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
(UNODC, 2006)

  1. Persons in custody, non-custodial sanctions, juvenile justice and restorative justice
  2. Legal, institutional and practical arrangements for international cooperation
  3. Crime prevention and victim issues
  4. Good governance, the independence of the judiciary and the integrity of criminal justice personnel

2016 Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International)

Criminal Justice Assessment Toolkit Website

Decision Points Map in the Criminal Justice System

Criminal Justice Assessment Toolkit (UNODC & UN Habitat, 2006)

  • Introduction
  • Policing
  • Access to Justice
  • Custodial and Non-Custodial Measures
  • Cross-Cutting Issues

Criminal Justice Assessment Toolkit: Criminal Prevention Assessment Tool
(UNODC & UN Habitat, 2009)

Defining the Rule of Law and Related Concepts (Dr. Vivienne O’Connor, INPROL, February 2015)

EUR-Lex (access to European Union Law)

Good Practices in Building Police-Public Partnerships (OSCE, 2008)

Global Organisation of Parliamentarians Against Corruptions (GOPAC)

Guidebook on Democratic Policing (OSCE, 2007)

Handbook on Justice for Victims (UNODC, 1999)

Handbook on Police Accountability, Oversight and Integrity (UNODC, 2011)

Handbook on Basic Principles and Promising Practices on Alternatives to Prison
(Criminal Justice Handbook Series) (UNODC, 2007)

Implementation of Police-Related Programmes – Lessons Learned in South-Eastern Europe
(OSCE, 2008)

Integrating a Gender Approach into Police-Public Partnerships (OSCE,2008)

Manual for Training Police on Anti-Human Trafficking (UNODC-ROSA & Indian Government, 2008)

Mapping the Justice System and Legal Framework in a Conflict-Affected Country
(Dr. Vivienne O’Connor, INPROL, August 2015)

Reference Guide to Criminal Procedure (OSCE, 2007)

Rule of Law Index (WJP, 2010)

The Role of Capacity Building in Police Reform (OSCE, 2006)

Shades of Grey in the Thin Blue Line: Determinates of Police Conduct (Simon de Saint-Claire, 2014)

Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operstions (Stimson, 2012)

Understanding the International Rule of Law Community, Its History, and Its Practice
(Dr. Vivienne O’Connor, INPROL, August 2015)

United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)

UNODC Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons (online) (2008, UNODC)

International Law: International Bill of Human Rights (OHCHR)

ABC of Human Rights (FDFA, Switzerland)

African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

International and Regional Human Rights Instruments: Comparative Rights Matrix

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
(UNGA, 1984/1987)

Crimes of War Project

Ethics in Policing (EiP)

European Commission: Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR)

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR)

European Code of Police Ethics (Council of Europe, 2001)

Geneva Conventions

Guidelines on Human Rights Education for Law Enforcement Officials (OSCE)

Human Rights

Human Rights Defenders Mechanisms

Human Rights Treaty Bodies

HuriDocs (Human Rights Case Tools)

International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Ethics Toolkit

International Bill of Human Rights

International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) Resource Centre

International Human Rights Law

International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement

International Humanitarian Law

Security and Human Rights Knowledge Hub

Ten Rules – Code of Personal Conduct for Blue Helmets

United Nations Human Rights

United Nations Human Rights Council

United Nations Human Rights Indicators

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

Universal Human Rights Index
Access country-specific human rights recommendations and information emanating from international human rights mechanisms in the UN system: the Treaty Bodies, the Special Procedures and the Universal Periodic Review (UPR).

Universal Jurisdiction

10 Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials (Amnesty International)

Islam, Human Rights, and Displacement  (Forced Migration Review, June 2012 Revised Edition)

Islamic Law – Practitioner’s Guide (Hamid Khan, J.D., August 2014 / INPROL)

Islamic Law – Sharia and Fiqh

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (Organisation of Islamic Cooperation)

Quran  (English translation by Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani)

Quran Browser

Anti-Trafficking Manual for Criminal Justice Practitioners (online book)

Downloadable Chapters

  1. Definition of trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants
  2. Indicators of trafficking in persons
  3. Psychological reaction of victims of trafficking in persons
  4. Control methods in trafficking in persons
  5. Risk assessment in trafficking in persons investigations
  6. International cooperation in trafficking in persons cases
  7. Crime scene and physical evidence examinations in trafficking in persons investigations
  8. Interviewing victims of trafficking in persons who are potential witnesses
  9. Interpreters in trafficking in persons investigations
  10. Victims’ needs in criminal justice proceedings in trafficking in persons cases
  11. Protections and assistance to victims-witnesses in trafficking in persons cases
  12. Compensation for victims of trafficking in persons
  13. Considerations in sentencing in trafficking in persons cases

Basic Training Manual on Investigating and Prosecuting the Smuggling of Migrants
(online edition)

Manual for Training Police on Anti-Human Trafficking (UNODC-ROSA & Indian Government, 2008)

Model Law Against the Smuggling of Migrants (UNODC, 2010)

Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons (online) (2008, UNODC)

  1. International Legal Framework
  2. Problem Assessment and Strategy Development
  3. Legislative Framework
  4. International Criminal Justice Cooperation
  5. Law Enforcement and Prosecution
  6. Victim Identification
  7. Immigration Status of Victims and their return and reintegration
  8. Victim Assistance
  9. Prevention of Trafficking in Persons
  10. Monitoring and Evaluation


Blue Heart Campaign (UNODC)

OSCE: Combating Human Trafficking


Modern-day Slavery Hub (Global Development Professionals Network / Guardian)

The CNN Freedom Project: Ending Modern Day Slavery

Civil Society Organisations

Human Trafficking Search

La Strada International (Europe)

Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women (GAATW)

Anti-Slavery International

Stop The Traffik


Polaris Project (US)

Discrimination and Hate Crime (OSCE)

Anti-discrimination Database
Search for information, policies and measures taken at the international, regional and national levels to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

UN Mission Maps

UN Deployment Maps

European External Action Service (EEAS) / Security & Defence (CSDP):

EU CSDP Mission Analysis Partnership

REACH – Global Information System Mapping (GIS) and Situation Assessment

UNOSAT – Operational Satellite Maps and Geographical Information (UNITAR)



1. Kosovo Resources – EULEX, UNMIK, OSCE, background etc.

BBC Regions and Territories: Kosovo

EULEX Police-specific Resources (for pre-deployment training)




About UNMIK – 1999-2007 (video: 7.30mins, 19.4MB)



Conflict History:  

Transnational Crime and Corruption in Kosovo


‘We Have Achieved Almost Nothing’: An Insider’s View of EU Efforts in Kosovo
(Der Speigel, November 2012)

Peacekeeping in Kosovo: ‘The Siutation is Still Tense’
(Der Speigel, August 2011)

Kosovar Interior Minister: ‘Kosovo’s Territorial Integrity is Inviolable’
(Der Speigel, August 2011)

The World from Berlin: ‘No Simple Solutions’ in the Balkans
(Der Speigel, July 2011)

Europe Report N°200 – 12 May 2009 (International Crisis Group)

Part 1: Slow Birth of a Nation
Part 2: More Greed Than Pioneer Spirit

KOLONI KOSOVO: by Maciej Zaremba (June 2007)
       Translated by Oliver Grassman
       Part 1: Report from UNMIKISTAN, land of the futre
       Part 2: The UN state and the seven robbers
       Part 3: Complain in Azabaijan
       Part 4: Prowess, courage and plastic socks
       A foundation for justice in Kosovo
       A bizarre form of Government
       Kosovo – a pocket guide

Endgame in Kosovo – multi-media presentation from The New York Times

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2  Afghanistan

Afghanistan: General Overview

  • Map
  • Geography
  • Government
  • History

Afghanistan – (Wikipedia)

Afghanistan: BBC Country Profile

Afghanistan Law Enforcement

A Brief History of Policing in Afghanistan (1960’s – 2002)

Police-Building in Afghanistan

EU Police Mission in Afghanistan (embedded videos)

Afghanistan National Police (ANP) – (Wikipedia)

Afghanistan Police Program – (Wikipedia)

Interagency Assessment of Afghanistan Police Training and Readiness
(Inspector Generals of the US Depts. of Defence and State, 2006)

Afghan Border Police (ABP) – (Wikipedia)

Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) – (Wikipedia)

Afghan Special Narcotics Force (ASNF) – (Wikipedia)

Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) – (Wikipedia)

National Directorate of Security (NDS) – (Wikipedia)

Afghanistan Law:

Basics of Afghan Law and Criminal Justice
(A Manual for the Afghan Police and Legal Professionals)

  • Constitution
  • Criminal Procedure Code
  • Police Law
  • Penal Code
  • Juvenile Code
  • Detection and Discovery Law
  • Law on the Organization and Jurisdiction of Courts

Afghanistan Constitution – (Wikipedia)

Law of Afghanistan (Wikipedia)

Human Rights in Afghanistan (Wikipedia)


Return of the Lion: Former Warlord Preps for Western Withdrawal
(Der Spiegel, September 2013)

Afghan Warlord: ‘The West Must Give Us Our Weapons Back’(Der Spiegel, September 2013)

Troop Withdrawal: Aid Groups Warn of Afghan Security Vacuum(Der Spiegel, July 2013)

Mazar-e-Sharif Suicides: Poisonous Freedom for Afghan Women(Der Spiegel, July 2013)

Interview with Ahmed Rashid: “The West Should Change It’s Approach to Failing States”
(Der Spiegel, Gerhard Spörl, December 2012)

Ineffective and Unsustainable: Failure Threatens Afghan Police Training Mission
(Der Spiegel, Andreas Ulrich, December 2012)

Afghanistan’s Injustice System” (Nick Grono, February 2012, Foreign Policy: AFPAK Channel)

How Crime Pays for the Taliban” (TIME, By Aryn Baker/Kunduz Monday, September 2009)

Afghanistan/ Pakistan: “Call the Police (but Please Help them First)”
Robert Templer, International Crisis Group, March 2009

Taking the Fight to the Taliban – TIME (photographer: Alvaro Ybarra Zavala )
A photo essay on life at a remote mountain outpost where Afghan soldiers police a dangerous border

Winning of losing? A Special Report on al-Qaeda
The Economist, July 2008

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3   Iraq Resources

Iraq – (Wikipedia)

Iraqi Police – (Wikipedia)

Iraqi Security Forces (Wikipedia)

Iraqi Constitution – (Wikipedia)

Law of Iraq – (Wikipedia)

Legal Documents and Instruments

Arab and English Legal Terminology and Glossaries

Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) – Official Document Archive

Constitution of Iraq (2005, with 2006 Amendments)

CPA Memorandum 2: Management of Detention and Prison Facilities

CPA Memorandum 3: Criminal Procedure

Criminal Procedure Code 23 (1971, as amended to 14 March 2010)

Global Justice Project: Iraq
(Judicial Independence, Constitutional Review, Anti-Corruption, Elections, Legislative Proces System)

Internal Security Forces Criminal Procedure Law No. 17 of 2008

Internal Security Forces Penal Law No. 14 of 2008

Law on Criminal Proceedings with Amendments (relating to Code 23, 1971)
(including amendments of CPA Memorandum 3, 2004)

Law No. 176: Police Duties to Prevent and Fight Crime (including Use of Force)

Penal Code 111 (1969, as amended to 14 March 2010)

Human Rights

Arab Charter on Human Rights (2004, implemented 2008)

Arab Human Rights Index

Iraq and International Human Rights Declarations and Instruments

United Nations Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review of Iraq (February 2010)

Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR)

Commission of Integrity

Interagency Assessment of Iraq Police Training (US Dept. of State and US Dept. of Defense, 2005)

Government Agencies

Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Iraqi Ministry of the Interior

Kurdistan Regional Government

Local Media

BBC Middle East News

Al-Monitor – Iraq Pulse

Dahr Jamail’s Dispatches

Azzaman in English

EIN News Monitoring Iraq

Kurdish Media

Peyamner News Agency

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